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A Message from Al Kresta

Dear friends and partners,

We’ve postponed our Spring membership drive because now is the best time to teach the faith, encourage the anxious, exhort the weary and preach good news without interruption. Our financial need, however, remains as urgent as ever. Please hit the Donate button and contribute as generously as the Lord has enabled you.  Also, ask for the intercession of our patroness, Blessed Mary, ever virgin who, in birthing God’s Son became the first to transmit the Word of God to the world.  Pray that we imitate her in offering Christ Jesus, the Eternal Word of God to the world.

Peace In Him,

Al

Thank You To Our Donors
Paul and Patricia - Howell, MI
Viviana - Lehigh Acres, FL
George and Mary - Spartanburg, SC
Elizabeth - Shepherd, MI
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Ronald and Gloria - Redford, MI
Barbara - Taylor, MI
Mark and Vicki - Maple City, MI
David - Washington Township, MI
Willard and Janet - Caro, MI
Joseph - Milan, MI
Ibtisam - Troy, MI
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Joyce - Sterling Heights, MI
Jeffrey and Katie - Saline, MI
Paul - Canton, MI
Paul and Mary Louise - Swarthmore, PA
Jennifer - Dundee, MI
Carmen - Peachtree City, GA
Jayson - Rochester Hills, MI
Jack and Anna - South Lyon, MI
Tiffany - Novi, MI
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Maher and Iklas - West Bloomfield, MI
James and Susan - Ann Arbor, MI
Rinaldo and Carmen - Farmington Hills, MI
Ingrid - Farmington Hills, MI
Kenneth and Rosemary - Beaverton, MI
Carl and Laura - Grand Blanc, MI
Paul and Susan - Rochester Hills, MI
Steven - Omaha, NE
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Douglas and Marcia - Ann Arbor, MI
Samuel and Sheryl - Saint Johns, FL
Geordie - Saint Petersburg, FL
Robert - Livonia, MI
Steven and Jacinta - Hawley, MN
Frank and Maria - White Lake, MI
Joan - Placentia, CA
Celia - The Colony, TX
Deborah - Belle River, ON Canada
Janet - Washington, MI
Mary - Ann Arbor, MI
Terry - Crowley, TX
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Curt and Ann Marie - Plymouth, MI
Thomas and Kathy - Ypsilanti, MI
Bernard and Lisa - Ann Arbor, MI
Amy - Alva, FL
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Keith - San Antonio, TX
Teresa - Clarkston, MI
Thomas and Deborah - Ann Arbor, MI
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Brian - Milan, MI
Robert and Julie - Ann Arbor, MI
Richard and Deana - Fremont, CA
Brian and Ann - Waterford, MI
Jeremy and Teresa - Farmington Hills, MI
Lisa - Lantana, FL
Donald and Maria - Manassas, VA
Ra-Mon - Ann Arbor, MI
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Karen - Canton, MI
John and Jaqueline - Harrisville, MI
Lana - Lewis Center, OH
Teresa - Rochester Hills, MI
Richard and Catherine - Midland, MI
Sonia - Damascus, MD
Brenda - San Lorenzo, CA
Richard and Sandra - Ann Arbor, MI
Rebecca - Richland, WA
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Kim - Oxford, MI
Catherine - Slinger, WI
Kenneth and Juliet - Ypsilanti, MI
Ritchie and Catherine - Dearborn, MI
Ariel - Lehigh Acres, FL
Cindy - Bossier City, LA
Thomas - Westford, MA
Terence and Melinda - Rochester, MI
Jennifer - Troy, MI
Roberta - Milford, MI
James and Bridget - Ypsilanti, MI
Daniel and Tracy - Canton, MI
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Ronald - Highland, MI
Anne - Arlington, VA
Ann Marie - Warren, MI
Edward - Laurel, MD
Kathleen - Clarkston, MI
Theodore - Brighton, MI
Anthony and Carole - South Rockwood, MI
Thomas and Karen - Ypsilanti, MI
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Annmarie - Royal Oak, MI
Robert and Helen - Berkley, MI
Matthew and Tabitha - Milan, MI
Kenneth and Mary - Fenton, MI
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Margo - Bay City, MI
Thomas - Boca Raton, FL
Catherine - Dearborn, MI
Mark and Donna - Southfield, MI
Judy - Walker, MI
Roseann - White Lake, MI
Christine - Troy, MI
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Stephen - Ann Arbor, MI
Regina - Cheverly, MD
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Amy - Livonia, MI
James - Peachtree City, GA
Virginia - Metamora, MI
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Barbara - Fort Mitchell, KY
Bernadette - Jersey City, NJ
Diana - Stanwood, WA
Michael and Kathleen - Clarkston, MI
Russel and Diane - Brighton, MI
John and Denise - Macomb, MI
Steven and Susan - Grosse Pointe Farms, MI
Craig and Terry - Ann Arbor, MI
Richard and Deborah - Wyandotte, MI
Edmund - Dothan, AL
Judy - Shelby Township, MI
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Virginia - Fort Myers, FL
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Caroline - Northville, MI
Joel - Saline, MI
Mary - Grand Blanc, MI
Donald and Cathleen - Powderly, TX
Joel - Livonia, MI
Renee - Livonia, MI
Martin - Kensington, MD
Craig and Tanya - Lansing, MI
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Barbara - Chelsea, MI
Diana - Macomb, MI
Douglas and Regina - White Lake, MI
Carol - Midland, MI
Ronald and Cynthia - Dearborn, MI
Stephen and Mary - Plymouth, MI
Huy-Linh and Rolaine - Canton, MI
John and Jan - Folsom, CA
Margaret - Flat Rock, MI
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Randall and Cheryl - South Lyon, MI
Daniel and Barbara - Novi, MI
Colleen - Dearborn, MI
Robert and Marilyn - Ann Arbor, MI
Thomas and Kathleen - Denton, TX
Thomas - Skaneateles, NY
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Mary Dianne - Clarkston, MI
Carol - Howell, MI
Michael - Fort Wayne, IN
Charles and Anna - Allen Park, MI
Donald and Carol - Columbia City, IN
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Robert and Emily - Commerce Township, MI
Dennis - Naples, FL
John and Rebecca - Conway, AR
William and Sevine - Corona, CA
Steve and Catherine - Warren, MI
Adam and Elizabeth - Ypsilanti, MI
James - Bonita Springs, FL
Paul and Maureen - Northville, MI
Logan - Milan, MI
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Donald - Naples, FL
Phyllis - Lafayette, LA
Kastytis and Rita - Livonia, MI
Thomas - Modesto, CA
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Barbara - Livonia, MI
Joseph and Patricia - Saline, MI
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Donald - Hillsborough, NJ
Patricia - El Paso, TX
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Margaret - Beaverton, MI
Erich and Jacqueline - Midland, MI
Margaret - Atlanta, GA
Richard - Canton, MI
Kevin and Andrea - Ypsilanti, MI
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Timothy / Klark's Auto Maintenance - Naples, FL
Scott - Warner Robins, GA
Eileen - Midlothian, VA
Philip - Lewiston, ID
Gregory - Lake Orion, MI
Sam and Ellynn - Troy, ID
Carl and Leann - Ypsilanti, MI
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James and Beth-Ann - Canton, MI
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Angela - Naples, FL
Carmen - North Potomac, MD
Halina - Burleson, TX
Jason and Angela - Perryville, MO
Paul and Susan - Milford, MI
Jay and Aracely - Canton, MI
Charles and Audrey - Alexandria, VA
Thomas and Theresa - Boise, ID
Joanne - Canton, MI
Michael and Katherine - Dearborn Heights, MI
Dave and Janet - Dexter, MI
David - Spokane, WA
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Susan - Saginaw, MI
Joanna - Waterbury Center, VT
John and Diane - Barre, VT
Joseph and Kathleeen - West Bloomfield, MI
Stephen - Ferndale, MI
Neil and Nanette - Ann Arbor, MI
Kevin and Patricia - Ortonville, MI
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Paul - Flushing, MI
Lisa - Capitola, CA
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Nancy - Walled Lake, MI
Margarita - Rochester Hills, MI
Michael and Helen - Auburn Hills, MI
Timothy - Monroe, MI
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Scott - Saginaw, MI
Ralph and Michelle - Cincinnati, OH
Mark - Garden City, MI
Virginia - Ypsilanti, MI
Andrew and Terese - Royal Oak, MI
Daniel and Cecilia - Canton, MI
Walter and Cheryl - Sterling Heights, MI
Jennifer - Novi, MI
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Alvaro and Laura - Saginaw, MI
Janice - Waterford, MI
Lawrence and Sharon - Whitmore Lake, MI
Erica - Sunbury, OH
Kimberly - Broomfield, CO
Jonathan and Peggy - Whitmore Lake, MI
Jeff and Pamela - Livonia, MI
Julia - Ely, MN
Michael - Dexter, MI
Jackford and Elisa - Belleville, MI
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Peter and Marsha - Ypsilanti, MI
Karen - Pinconning, MI
Michael and Joanne - Clarkston, MI
Alejandrina - San Antonio, TX
Alfred and Jeanette - Clinton Township, MI
Michael and Audrey - Leonard, MI
Alexander - Watertown, SD
Barbara - Conway, AR
Patrick and Teresa - Bay City, MI
Starling and Susan - South Lyon, MI
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Marc - Youngsville, LA
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Rita - Warren, MI
Charlene - White River Junction, VT
Chuong - Houston, TX
Patricia - San Dimas, CA
Robert and Cynthia - Saline, MI
Jolene - Plymouth, MI
Richard and Tanya - Rochester Hills, MI
Catherine - Canton, MI
Robert - Fenton, MI
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Barbara - Morton, IL
William and Melanie - Grand Blanc, MI
Ronald - Bennington, NE
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Barbara - Troy, MI
Thomas and Margaret - Plymouth, MI
Kelley - Denison, TX
Michael - Taylor, MI
Brian and Barbara - Cincinnati, OH
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David and Anne - Saginaw, MI
Phyllis - Waterford, MI
Elizabeth - Ann Arbor, MI
Richard and Kathleen - Novi, MI
Donna - Rockwall, TX
Gene and Sue - Ann Arbor, MI
Edward - Garden City, MI
Barbara - Dexter, MI
Christine - Burt, MI
Steven and Dina - Dexter, MI
Diane - Canton, MI
Barbara - Rockbridge Baths, VA
Thomas and Jodi - Westerville, OH
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Donna - Essexville, MI
Douglas - Horton, MI
Mark - Swartz Creek, MI
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Maria Rebecca - Abilene, TX
Patrice - Plymouth, MI
Karen - White Lake, MI
Donald and Rose - Whitmore Lake, MI
Marc and Marylynn - Clarkston, MI
Dave - West Branch, WI
Matthew - Saint Charles, MI
Richard - Plymouth, MI
Mark and Rachel - Ypsilanti, MI
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Brent and Terri - Highland, MI
Sandra - Northville, MI
Eric - Bloomfield Hills, MI
Kathi - Plano, TX
Haiyan - Ann Arbor, MI
Przemyslaw - Golden, CO
Jill - Livonia, MI
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Joseph - Ypsilanti, MI
Peg - New Berlin, WI
David - Ann Arbor, MI
Joe and Erica - Canton, MI
Sharon - Adrian, MI
Dan and Brandy - Texarkana, TX
William and Kathleen - Auburn Hills, MI
Paul and Joanne - Chatham, ON Canada
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Paul and Jody - Plainview, MN
Walter and Mary Anne - Dearborn, MI
Brian and Laura - Indianapolis, IN
Teresa - Madison Heights, MI
Kathleen - Canton, MI
Maureen - Ypsilanti, MI
Andrew and Terese - Royal Oak, MI
Brendan and Hannah - Saline, MI
Gregory and Elizabeth - Northville, MI
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John - Whitsett, NC
Jonathan and Artha - Clarkston, MI
Patrick and Eileen - Ypsilanti, MI
Michael - Whitmore Lake, MI
Stuart and Annette - Ypsilanti, MI
Catherine - Plano, TX
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Erin - Merrimack, NH
Patrick - Essexville, MI
Kevin and MaryBeth - Plymouth, MI
Theresa - Brooklyn, MI
Thomas and Mary Anne - Saint Ignace, MI
Christopher and Kristen - Dearborn, MI
Chris and Elaine - Livonia, MI
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Maureen - The Villages, FL
Rachael - Ann Arbor, MI
Margaret - Commerce Township, MI
Maria - Wyandotte, MI
Michael & Juanita - Ojai, CA
Marouki and Awatif - West Bloomfield, MI
Thomas and Mary - Berkley, MI
Michael - Livonia, MI
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Patricia - Sunrise, FL
Minoo and Jeanette - Farmington Hills, MI
Ralph and Elizabeth - Coal Valley, IL
Genevieve - Lapeer, MI
Matthew - Ann Arbor, MI
Billy - New Rochelle, NY
Paul and Lucy - Ypsilanti, MI
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Kevin - Clarkston, MI
Karen - Plymouth, MI
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Thomas and Sarah - Ann Arbor, MI
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Jeff - Saginaw, MI
Paul - Livonia, MI
Katherine - Ypsilanti, MI
Edward - Dearborn Heights, MI
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Cecilia - Grand Prairie, TX
Shirley - Fenton, MI
Peggy - South Lyon, MI
Carol - Ypsilanti, MI
Trevor and Brittany - Dexter, MI
James and Sandra - Redford, MI
Michael and Laura - Plymouth, MI
Betty - Concord, MI
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Jeffrey - Reno, NV
Samuel and Lisa - Waterford, MI
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Jason and Mary - Northville, MI
Stanley and Donna - Wyandotte, MI
Maureen - Grand Ledge, MI
Zephyr - Nampa, ID
Marilyn - Baton Rouge, LA
Alan and Rosetta - Chesaning, MI
Melanie - Humboldt, SK
Michael - Ocean Springs, MS
William - Shelby Township, MI
David - Plymouth, MI
James and Dorothy - Ypsilanti, MI
Esther - Manlius, NY
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Andrew - Grapevine, TX
Prudence - Troy, MI
Terese - Corpus Christi, TX
Daniel - Ann Arbor, MI
Maryanne - Acworth, GA
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Benjamin and Erin - Sterling Heights, MI
Elizabeth - Lincoln, NE
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Craig and Tanya - Lansing, MI
Duane and Judith - Grand Blanc, MI
Vincent and Ellen - Brighton, MI
John and Patricia - Livonia, MI
Tom and Patricia - Plymouth, MI
Charles and Anna - Allen Park, MI
Susan - Clio, MI
Paul and Karen - White Lake, MI
Chris and Esther - Schertz, TX
Russell and Catherine - West Branch, MI
Michael - Maumee, OH
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John - Sainte Genevieve, MO
Gregory - Ann Arbor, MI
Elizabeth - Willis, MI
Joseph - Billings, MT
Carol - Woburn, MA
Susan - Milford, MI
Lael - Scottsdale, AZ
Frank and Flavia - El Paso, TX
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Jane - Novi, MI
Donna - Commerce Township, MI
Lee and Deborah - Garden City, MI
Jerry and Rachel - Deer Park, TX
Mary Lee - Ann Arbor, MI
Phil and Patricia - Northville, MI
James - Windsor, ON Canada
John and Sara - Silver Spring, MD
James and Mary - Royal Oak, MI
Chris and Lynda - Trenton, MI
Steven - Plymouth, MI
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Michael - Pittsford, NY
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Don - Walton, KY
Susan - Pinckney, MI
Constance - San Francisco, CA
John and Laura - Oxford, MI
Gary and Carol - Sunset, LA
Mary - Woodstock, GA
Annette - Novi, MI
Harry and Rita - Milford, MI
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Mark and Mary - Farmington Hills, MI
Mark and Jane - Kawkawlin, MI
Joseph and Mary - Grand Ledge, MI
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John and Lisa - Ypsilanti, MI
William and Mary - Ann Arbor, MI
Kenneth - Redford, MI
Cheryl - Lapeer, MI
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Kathleen - Glasgow, KY
Randy and Laura - Livonia, MI
Emilia - Canton, MI
Lindall - Falmouth, MI
Mary - Fall City, WA
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Elizabeth - Whitmore Lake, MI
Bryan - Jacksonville, FL
Theresa - Bradenton, FL
Madeline - Fenton, MI
Roberta - Farmington, NM
Jeremy and Bonnie - Berkley, MI
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Peter and Mary - Livonia, MI
Anthony and Marie - Sand Coulee, MT
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Charles and Delia - South Lyon, MI
David - Alexandria, VA
Emily - Clarkston, MI
Daniel - Troy, MI
Daniel - Flint, MI
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Albert and Sally - Ann Arbor, MI
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John - Indialantic, FL
Richard and Joan - Livonia, MI
Mark and Nancy - Northville, MI
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Catherine - Milford, MI
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Thomas and Sylvina - Spokane, WA
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Jacqueline - Belleville, MI
Robert and Cynthia - Saline, MI
Margaret - Lathrup Village, MI
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Roger and Kathleen - Chelsea, MI
Stephen - Pleasant Ridge, MI
Sophie - Westland, MI
David - Paulding, OH
Thomas and Leslie - Pontiac, MI
Dalia - Fort Myers, FL
William and Emily - Westland, MI
Deborah - Burke, VA
Jane - Brooklyn, MI
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Lena - Livonia, MI
Paul - Taylor, MI
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Thomas and Nancy - Brighton, MI
Matthew and Vikki - Rosemead, CA
Julia - Farmington Hills, MI
Steven - Ann Arbor, MI
Thomas and Maria - Canton, MI
Helen - Dexter, MI
Pauline - Pahrump, NV
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Richard and Margaret - Livonia, MI
Steven - Hampton, VA
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Joseph and Karen - Sacramento, CA
James and Mary - Marina Del Rey, CA
John and Marcia - Dearborn, MI
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Thank You … Ave Maria Radio
John and Judith - Dearborn Heights, MI
Jane - Niles, MI
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Lawrence and Stacey - Clarkston, MI
Judith - Milford, MI
Lisa - Plymouth, MI
Kathleen - Ann Arbor, MI
Brian and Kelly - Canton, MI
Jared and Sarah - Rathdrum, ID
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Shawn - Monroe, MI
Maria - Imlay City, MI
Bernice - Berlin, MI
Mike and Rebecca - Ann Arbor, MI
Stephen and Sandra - Clinton Township, MI
Lennie - New Hudson, MI
Perry and Mary - Commerce Twp, MI
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John - Waterford, MI
Mark and Marilyn - Grosse Ile, MI
Thomas and Patricia - Brighton, MI
Jaime - APO, AE
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Lyle and Cynthia - Livonia, MI
Robert and Laura - Underwood, IA
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Marlene - Dearborn, MI
Joseph - Fredericksburg, TX
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John and Sharon - Troy, MI
Traci - Dearborn, MI
John and Mary Lou - Gregory, MI
Gerald and Maria - Pasco, WA
Ann - West Bloomfield, MI
Kimberly - Westland, MI
Colleen - San Antonio, TX
Ismael - Marietta, GA
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Rita - Farmington Hills, MI
Mary - Rochester Hills, MI
Jeffrey - Brighton, MI
Stashia - Howell, MI
Constance - Gainesville, GA
Inyoung - Yorba Linda, CA
Jane - Rochester Hills, MI
Ceilia - Fenton, MI
Linda - Dearborn, MI
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Martin - Canton, MI
David - Ypsilanti, MI
Linda - Grand Blanc, MI
Dave and Mary - Saint Louis, MO
Erik - Silverdale, WA
Thomas - Dearborn, MI
Melody - Tulsa, OK
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Thomas - Ypsilanti, MI
Leonard and Rosemary - Saline, MI
Jeff and Vickie - Big Piney, WY
Mukasa and Cleo - Canton, MI
Katreena - Livonia, MI
Charles - Farmington Hills, MI
Beth Ann - Canton, MI
Patricia - Ann Arbor, MI
David and Rosie - Rio Rico, AZ
Janet - Dracut, MA
Kenneth and Laura - Canton, MI
Michael and Rosemary - Ann Arbor, MI
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Mary Ellen - Ypsilanti, MI
David and Emiliana - Bismarck, ND
Ruthie - Marshallville, OH
David and Carol - South Lyon, MI
Therese - Westland, MI
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Vincent and Theresa - Canton, MI
Margaret - Troy, MI
John Scott and Cheryl - Fox Island, WA
Jeanine - Plymouth, MI
Michael and Donna - Ann Arbor, MI
Michael and Cindi - Fort Worth, TX
James - Lapeer, MI
Victor - Pine Grove, PA
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Bernice - Morrow, OH
Ron and Lisa - Dexter, MI
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Jonathan and Cristin - Northville, MI
Robert and Susan - White Lake, MI
Andrew and Gwen - Plymouth, MI
D. and Rosalind - Ann Arbor, MI
Eric and Christina - Washington Township, MI
Thomas and Pamela - Plymouth, MI
Vincent and Kathleen - Hebron, KY
Patricia - Fort Worth, TX
George - Livonia, MI
Amy - Milford, MI
Nicole - Allen Park, MI
Carol - Ypsilanti, MI
Rosario - Sterling Heights, MI
Aaron and Michele - Ypsilanti, MI
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Mary - Livonia, MI
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Mary - Tecumseh, MI
Michael and Pamela - Canton, MI
Joseph and Tina - South Lyon, MI
Jacqueline - Howell, MI
Timothy - Ann Arbor, MI
David and Jane - Fraser, MI
Justin and Christina - Pinckney, MI
Robert and Christine - Ypsilanti, MI
Karen - Utica, MI
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Christine - Oakland, MI
Gregory - Berkley, MI
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Daniel - Duxbury, MA
Colin - Clarkston, MI
Mary - Sterling Heights, MI
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Jay and Mary - Richmond, TX
Constance - Fort Myers, FL
Leota - Yakima, WA
Rossy - Bronx, NY
Frank and Sandra - Dearborn, MI
Teresa - Rowlett, TX
Jose and Jessica - Grapevine, TX
Jeanne - Canton, MI
James and Frances - Plymouth, MI
Robert - Orland Park, IL
Robert and Merrell - Palestine, TX
Michael and Emma - Oxford, MI
Mazin - West Bloomfield, MI
Mitzi - Mechanicsville, MD
Brenda - Odessa, TX
Kyle - Ypsilanti, MI
Joseph - Saginaw, MI
Roberto - Katy, TX
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Angelique - Inkster, MI
Kevin - Charlotte, NC
Judith - Swartz Creek, MI
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Janet - Plymouth, MI
Gerard and Christine - Commerce Twp, MI
Dawn - Plymouth, MI
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James and Bridget - Ypsilanti, MI
Angela - Canton, MI
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Thomas and Dianne - Canton, MI
Larry and Branwen - Saline, MI
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Lynn - Hazel Park, MI
Andrew - Monroe, MI
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Timothy and Mary - Midland, MI
William - Irvine, CA
Ramon and Martha - Parma, MI
Jose - North Fort Myers, FL
Robert and Linda - Fenton, MI
Amy - Edmond, OK
Dalia - Canton, MI
Ann - Cape Coral, FL
David and Margie - Milan, MI
Christy - Charlotte, NC
Cameron and Teresa - Fallbrook, CA
Georgianna - Clarkston, MI
Erin - Whitmore Lake, MI
James and Mary Beth - Bonita Springs, FL
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Steven and Julie - Royal Oak, MI
Suzanne - Waterford, CT
Gerard and Anne - Naples, FL
Sharon - La Porte City, IA
Scott and Gayle - Cedar, MI
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Virginia - Eagle River, AK
Marjorie - Bay City, MI
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Guy and Trish - Clarkston, MI
Lonnie - Sioux Falls, SD
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Joseph and Becky - Plymouth, MI
Daniel and Carol - Ann Arbor, MI
Joyce - Orange, TX
Lillian - Cooper City, FL
Christopher - Summerfield, FL
Pamela - Dryden, MI
Matthew and Rebekah - Plymouth, MI
Sam / Strategic Partners - Canton, MI
Therese - Ann Arbor, MI
John and Carol - Novi, MI
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Robert and Marie - Riverview, MI
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Roy - Belleville, MI
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Michael and Beth - Ann Arbor, MI
Diane - Grand Blanc, MI
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Michael - Fairfax, VA
P.J. and Jenny - Fowlerville, MI
Peter - Hollywood, FL
Linda - Bay City, MI
Daren and T. - Pinckney, MI
Cheryl - St Thomas, ON Canada
Brian - Milan, MI
Juan - Oxnard, CA
Richard - Russell, KS
James and Eva - Clarkston, MI
Donald and Kristen - Twin Lakes, WI
John - Whitsett, NC
Jeanette - Milford, MI
Heidi - Westland, MI
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Dina - West Bloomfield, MI
Mary - Farmington Hills, MI
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Linda - Columbus, OH
Renee - Dearborn Heights, MI
Josie - Fenton, MO
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Kyle - Cleveland, OH
Adam and Maria - Waterford, NY
Mladen - Windsor, ON Canada
Adam - Ann Arbor, MI
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Robert and Frances - Milford, MI
Michael and Cheryl - Howell, MI
Christopher - Hilliard, OH
Colleen - Plymouth, MI
John and Karen - Metamora, MI
Michael - Plymouth, MI
Ricardo - Carmel, IN
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John and Nancy - Ypsilanti, MI
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Cathy - Ludington, MI
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Rita - Acworth, GA
James and Doris - Saginaw, MI
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Dave - Wixom, MI
Mara - Plymouth, MI
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Paul - Shepherdstown, WV
Mary - Mill Valley, CA
Linda - Cincinnati, OH
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Catherine - Brighton, MI
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Maureen - Waterford, MI
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Samuel and Susanne - Livonia, MI
James and Bridget - Saline, MI
MaryEllen - Plymouth, MI
Fred and Beverly - Waterford, MI
David - Ypsilanti, MI
Marc - Saginaw, MI
Mildred - Spring Mills, PA
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Brett and Andrea - Lorton, VA
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Joseph and Susannah - Simpsonville, SC
Donald and Lynette - Missouri City, TX
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Cynthia - Warren, MI
Mark - Farmington Hills, MI
Judith - Troy, MI
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Mary - Ann Arbor, MI
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Thomas and Susan - Chelsea, MI
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Patricia - Thornton, CO
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Susanne - Ave Maria, FL
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HONG KONG — He Jiankui, a now-former researcher at Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen, China, rose from obscurity to international scrutiny after revealing to the world that he used a new genetic-editing technique to design two HIV-resistant Chinese baby girls as embryos and implanted them into their mother through in vitro fertilization (IVF).

“Two Chinese girls, called Lulu and Nana, came crying into this world as healthy as any other babies,” He said in a Nov. 25 YouTube video.

The international scientific and medical community responded with shock at He’s claims, which he presented again Nov. 27 at the second International Human Genome Editing Summit in Hong Kong. His claims so far have not been substantiated. But many in China’s scientific community, which has been on the long march to pioneer genetic therapies, swiftly condemned He for using the CRISPR/cas9 editing technique on human embryos.

Many scientists and ethicists, meanwhile, have been quick to point out that CRISPR and other gene-editing technologies have a vast potential to treat even the rarest and most obscure diseases in human beings without moral objections or tampering with humanity’s gene pool. Many of these promising therapies are already under development.

Gene editing is aimed at two different kinds of cells in the body: somatic cells (an individual’s cells) and germ cells (sperm or egg).

 

Hopeful Progress

Janet Lambert, CEO of the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, which represents more than 300 companies and nonprofits worldwide developing new genetic therapies, told the Register that the vast majority of gene-editing research involves somatic cells. Technology like CRISPR, she indicated, has made it possible to treat a host of diseases that drug companies ordinarily would not touch due to prohibitive expenses and a small market. Lambert explained there are more than 7,000 rare genetic diseases and only a few hundred treatments available. Such diseases include Parkinson’s disease, Type 1 diabetes, sickle cell anemia, Gaucher disease and glioblastoma, among many others.

“The promise of the technology is extraordinary,” Lambert said. Scientists may eventually develop ways to introduce somatic cell therapies into the womb that could save unborn children from fatal diseases, but Lambert said those breakthroughs are a long ways off.

However, editing the human germline poses far greater risks because it introduces a permanent genetic change that can be passed down. Therapeutic human germline editing is not currently permitted in the United States, Lambert explained. Other than rogue scientists like He, she added, scientific research into editing the human germline for therapeutic purposes is not taking place “as far as we know.”

Lambert said both somatic and germline editing could be abused for nontherapeutic purposes. But somatic cell editing “limits the consequences of what you’re doing” to a single person, not the entire human family.

“There’s a need to have a much clearer understanding of the safety and efficacy profile of gene editing in human beings before it starts affecting multiple generations,” she said.

 

What is CRISPR?

Scientists are still at the early stages of understanding CRISPR as a gene-editing tool, explained Kevin Doxzen, science communications specialist at the Innovative Genomics Institute.

CRISPR acts as a “programmable molecular scissors” on the human genome, which has approximately 3 billion base pairs. A genome is an organism’s complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which contains all of the organism’s genetic code.

Doxzen explained that sickle-cell anemia is the result of one letter change on human DNA. But with CRISPR, one can cut out that single-letter base pair. The next step then involves using the body’s natural repair pathways to replace it with other genetic material.

“That next step can be pretty hard,” he said. Some scientists are using CRISPR to modify the mosquitoes most responsible for transmitting malaria, a disease that is devastating populations in Africa.

“The range of CRISPR to treat human diseases is enormous,” he told the Register.

But Doxzen said scientists still have a lot to learn about DNA and how to use CRISPR to cut DNA correctly and avoid the risk of “off-target cutting” of the human genome.

He said that when it comes to germline editing, current technology does not permit germline edits in adults, so the only option would be to do it in embryos. But the biology of the embryo is “very, very poorly understood.”

Doxzen added that He’s experimental data on the CRISPR twin girls is sloppy, but if the gene editing actually occurred, there will be permanent ramifications.

“Essentially He passed down sloppy experiments to future generations,” he said.

 

Moral Considerations

The application of genetic modification technologies on human embryos poses different moral questions than somatic cell gene-editing therapies applied to unborn children in the womb, or adults, explained Father Tadeusz Pacholczyk, a Catholic priest, neuroscientist and director of education at the National Catholic Bioethics Center in Philadelphia.

Father Pacholczyk said mitochondrial gene editing on a human baby would not pose “fundamental moral concerns as long as the risks to the patient from the treatment were low.”

“Sickle-cell anemia would be an example of a disease that is likely to be able to be treated in many adults via gene-therapy approaches,” he added.

But germ-editing human embryos faces multiple moral barriers. The Catholic Church’s viewpoint, Father Pacholczyk explained, grounded in the dignity of the human person, rules out, first of all, creating human embryos in laboratories. The IVF process (involved in embryonic germline editing) violates their human dignity by turning them into objects that are created (or then frozen to be later thawed out).

“Humans deserve to be brought into the world not in the cold, impersonal world of laboratory glassware, but exclusively in the loving, bodily embrace of their parents,” he said.

Unlike the somatic cell gene therapies that could “involve treating the embryo as a unique patient, within his or her mother’s womb,” the germ-line editing of human embryos turns those human beings into “raw laboratory material, prepped up for experimental protocols” that end up being treated as products, subjected to genetic experiments, with the view that “a few of them might end up surviving and developing without the disease.”

“The use of genetic-modification technologies on embryos imposes significant risk for the embryo, simply in terms of the mechanical procedures themselves, the numerous manipulative steps involved, and the risks of potential ‘off-target’ genetic changes that might reasonably be expected to occur,” Father Pacholczyk said.

The priest said encouraging research into genetically modified embryos would “open up the floodgates” for embryos to be created and destroyed in laboratory experiments.

 

Unintended Consequences

And Father Pacholczyk said making edits to embryonic children may involve risks that are only understood when they grow older. The priest pointed out that the changes He made to confer immunity to HIV infection may increase the twins’ susceptibility to West Nile virus and other diseases.

“Is it ever proper to experiment on our own offspring?” he said. “Even when we think we understand the role of a specific gene, we sometimes discover later that it has several functions, and tinkering with it ends up having other surprising downstream effects.”

But these modifications will also be passed into the human gene pool, “establishing permanent and irrevocable changes to our own humanity.”

He asked: “How does one adequately evaluate the risks of such changes?”

via National Catholic Register. 

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