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A Message from Al Kresta

Dear friends and partners,

We’ve postponed our Spring membership drive because now is the best time to teach the faith, encourage the anxious, exhort the weary and preach good news without interruption. Our financial need, however, remains as urgent as ever. Please hit the Donate button and contribute as generously as the Lord has enabled you.  Also, ask for the intercession of our patroness, Blessed Mary, ever virgin who, in birthing God’s Son became the first to transmit the Word of God to the world.  Pray that we imitate her in offering Christ Jesus, the Eternal Word of God to the world.

Peace In Him,

Al

Thank You To Our Donors
Paul and Patricia - Howell, MI
Viviana - Lehigh Acres, FL
George and Mary - Spartanburg, SC
Elizabeth - Shepherd, MI
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Ronald and Gloria - Redford, MI
Barbara - Taylor, MI
Mark and Vicki - Maple City, MI
David - Washington Township, MI
Willard and Janet - Caro, MI
Joseph - Milan, MI
Ibtisam - Troy, MI
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Joyce - Sterling Heights, MI
Jeffrey and Katie - Saline, MI
Paul - Canton, MI
Paul and Mary Louise - Swarthmore, PA
Jennifer - Dundee, MI
Carmen - Peachtree City, GA
Jayson - Rochester Hills, MI
Jack and Anna - South Lyon, MI
Tiffany - Novi, MI
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Maher and Iklas - West Bloomfield, MI
James and Susan - Ann Arbor, MI
Rinaldo and Carmen - Farmington Hills, MI
Ingrid - Farmington Hills, MI
Kenneth and Rosemary - Beaverton, MI
Carl and Laura - Grand Blanc, MI
Paul and Susan - Rochester Hills, MI
Steven - Omaha, NE
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Douglas and Marcia - Ann Arbor, MI
Samuel and Sheryl - Saint Johns, FL
Geordie - Saint Petersburg, FL
Robert - Livonia, MI
Steven and Jacinta - Hawley, MN
Frank and Maria - White Lake, MI
Joan - Placentia, CA
Celia - The Colony, TX
Deborah - Belle River, ON Canada
Janet - Washington, MI
Mary - Ann Arbor, MI
Terry - Crowley, TX
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Curt and Ann Marie - Plymouth, MI
Thomas and Kathy - Ypsilanti, MI
Bernard and Lisa - Ann Arbor, MI
Amy - Alva, FL
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Keith - San Antonio, TX
Teresa - Clarkston, MI
Thomas and Deborah - Ann Arbor, MI
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Brian - Milan, MI
Robert and Julie - Ann Arbor, MI
Richard and Deana - Fremont, CA
Brian and Ann - Waterford, MI
Jeremy and Teresa - Farmington Hills, MI
Lisa - Lantana, FL
Donald and Maria - Manassas, VA
Ra-Mon - Ann Arbor, MI
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Karen - Canton, MI
John and Jaqueline - Harrisville, MI
Lana - Lewis Center, OH
Teresa - Rochester Hills, MI
Richard and Catherine - Midland, MI
Sonia - Damascus, MD
Brenda - San Lorenzo, CA
Richard and Sandra - Ann Arbor, MI
Rebecca - Richland, WA
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Kim - Oxford, MI
Catherine - Slinger, WI
Kenneth and Juliet - Ypsilanti, MI
Ritchie and Catherine - Dearborn, MI
Ariel - Lehigh Acres, FL
Cindy - Bossier City, LA
Thomas - Westford, MA
Terence and Melinda - Rochester, MI
Jennifer - Troy, MI
Roberta - Milford, MI
James and Bridget - Ypsilanti, MI
Daniel and Tracy - Canton, MI
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Ronald - Highland, MI
Anne - Arlington, VA
Ann Marie - Warren, MI
Edward - Laurel, MD
Kathleen - Clarkston, MI
Theodore - Brighton, MI
Anthony and Carole - South Rockwood, MI
Thomas and Karen - Ypsilanti, MI
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Annmarie - Royal Oak, MI
Robert and Helen - Berkley, MI
Matthew and Tabitha - Milan, MI
Kenneth and Mary - Fenton, MI
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Margo - Bay City, MI
Thomas - Boca Raton, FL
Catherine - Dearborn, MI
Mark and Donna - Southfield, MI
Judy - Walker, MI
Roseann - White Lake, MI
Christine - Troy, MI
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Stephen - Ann Arbor, MI
Regina - Cheverly, MD
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Amy - Livonia, MI
James - Peachtree City, GA
Virginia - Metamora, MI
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Barbara - Fort Mitchell, KY
Bernadette - Jersey City, NJ
Diana - Stanwood, WA
Michael and Kathleen - Clarkston, MI
Russel and Diane - Brighton, MI
John and Denise - Macomb, MI
Steven and Susan - Grosse Pointe Farms, MI
Craig and Terry - Ann Arbor, MI
Richard and Deborah - Wyandotte, MI
Edmund - Dothan, AL
Judy - Shelby Township, MI
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Virginia - Fort Myers, FL
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Caroline - Northville, MI
Joel - Saline, MI
Mary - Grand Blanc, MI
Donald and Cathleen - Powderly, TX
Joel - Livonia, MI
Renee - Livonia, MI
Martin - Kensington, MD
Craig and Tanya - Lansing, MI
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Barbara - Chelsea, MI
Diana - Macomb, MI
Douglas and Regina - White Lake, MI
Carol - Midland, MI
Ronald and Cynthia - Dearborn, MI
Stephen and Mary - Plymouth, MI
Huy-Linh and Rolaine - Canton, MI
John and Jan - Folsom, CA
Margaret - Flat Rock, MI
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Randall and Cheryl - South Lyon, MI
Daniel and Barbara - Novi, MI
Colleen - Dearborn, MI
Robert and Marilyn - Ann Arbor, MI
Thomas and Kathleen - Denton, TX
Thomas - Skaneateles, NY
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Mary Dianne - Clarkston, MI
Carol - Howell, MI
Michael - Fort Wayne, IN
Charles and Anna - Allen Park, MI
Donald and Carol - Columbia City, IN
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Robert and Emily - Commerce Township, MI
Dennis - Naples, FL
John and Rebecca - Conway, AR
William and Sevine - Corona, CA
Steve and Catherine - Warren, MI
Adam and Elizabeth - Ypsilanti, MI
James - Bonita Springs, FL
Paul and Maureen - Northville, MI
Logan - Milan, MI
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Donald - Naples, FL
Phyllis - Lafayette, LA
Kastytis and Rita - Livonia, MI
Thomas - Modesto, CA
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Barbara - Livonia, MI
Joseph and Patricia - Saline, MI
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Donald - Hillsborough, NJ
Patricia - El Paso, TX
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Margaret - Beaverton, MI
Erich and Jacqueline - Midland, MI
Margaret - Atlanta, GA
Richard - Canton, MI
Kevin and Andrea - Ypsilanti, MI
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Timothy / Klark's Auto Maintenance - Naples, FL
Scott - Warner Robins, GA
Eileen - Midlothian, VA
Philip - Lewiston, ID
Gregory - Lake Orion, MI
Sam and Ellynn - Troy, ID
Carl and Leann - Ypsilanti, MI
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James and Beth-Ann - Canton, MI
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Angela - Naples, FL
Carmen - North Potomac, MD
Halina - Burleson, TX
Jason and Angela - Perryville, MO
Paul and Susan - Milford, MI
Jay and Aracely - Canton, MI
Charles and Audrey - Alexandria, VA
Thomas and Theresa - Boise, ID
Joanne - Canton, MI
Michael and Katherine - Dearborn Heights, MI
Dave and Janet - Dexter, MI
David - Spokane, WA
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Susan - Saginaw, MI
Joanna - Waterbury Center, VT
John and Diane - Barre, VT
Joseph and Kathleeen - West Bloomfield, MI
Stephen - Ferndale, MI
Neil and Nanette - Ann Arbor, MI
Kevin and Patricia - Ortonville, MI
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Paul - Flushing, MI
Lisa - Capitola, CA
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Nancy - Walled Lake, MI
Margarita - Rochester Hills, MI
Michael and Helen - Auburn Hills, MI
Timothy - Monroe, MI
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Scott - Saginaw, MI
Ralph and Michelle - Cincinnati, OH
Mark - Garden City, MI
Virginia - Ypsilanti, MI
Andrew and Terese - Royal Oak, MI
Daniel and Cecilia - Canton, MI
Walter and Cheryl - Sterling Heights, MI
Jennifer - Novi, MI
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Alvaro and Laura - Saginaw, MI
Janice - Waterford, MI
Lawrence and Sharon - Whitmore Lake, MI
Erica - Sunbury, OH
Kimberly - Broomfield, CO
Jonathan and Peggy - Whitmore Lake, MI
Jeff and Pamela - Livonia, MI
Julia - Ely, MN
Michael - Dexter, MI
Jackford and Elisa - Belleville, MI
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Peter and Marsha - Ypsilanti, MI
Karen - Pinconning, MI
Michael and Joanne - Clarkston, MI
Alejandrina - San Antonio, TX
Alfred and Jeanette - Clinton Township, MI
Michael and Audrey - Leonard, MI
Alexander - Watertown, SD
Barbara - Conway, AR
Patrick and Teresa - Bay City, MI
Starling and Susan - South Lyon, MI
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Marc - Youngsville, LA
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Rita - Warren, MI
Charlene - White River Junction, VT
Chuong - Houston, TX
Patricia - San Dimas, CA
Robert and Cynthia - Saline, MI
Jolene - Plymouth, MI
Richard and Tanya - Rochester Hills, MI
Catherine - Canton, MI
Robert - Fenton, MI
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Barbara - Morton, IL
William and Melanie - Grand Blanc, MI
Ronald - Bennington, NE
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Barbara - Troy, MI
Thomas and Margaret - Plymouth, MI
Kelley - Denison, TX
Michael - Taylor, MI
Brian and Barbara - Cincinnati, OH
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David and Anne - Saginaw, MI
Phyllis - Waterford, MI
Elizabeth - Ann Arbor, MI
Richard and Kathleen - Novi, MI
Donna - Rockwall, TX
Gene and Sue - Ann Arbor, MI
Edward - Garden City, MI
Barbara - Dexter, MI
Christine - Burt, MI
Steven and Dina - Dexter, MI
Diane - Canton, MI
Barbara - Rockbridge Baths, VA
Thomas and Jodi - Westerville, OH
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Donna - Essexville, MI
Douglas - Horton, MI
Mark - Swartz Creek, MI
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Maria Rebecca - Abilene, TX
Patrice - Plymouth, MI
Karen - White Lake, MI
Donald and Rose - Whitmore Lake, MI
Marc and Marylynn - Clarkston, MI
Dave - West Branch, WI
Matthew - Saint Charles, MI
Richard - Plymouth, MI
Mark and Rachel - Ypsilanti, MI
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Brent and Terri - Highland, MI
Sandra - Northville, MI
Eric - Bloomfield Hills, MI
Kathi - Plano, TX
Haiyan - Ann Arbor, MI
Przemyslaw - Golden, CO
Jill - Livonia, MI
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Joseph - Ypsilanti, MI
Peg - New Berlin, WI
David - Ann Arbor, MI
Joe and Erica - Canton, MI
Sharon - Adrian, MI
Dan and Brandy - Texarkana, TX
William and Kathleen - Auburn Hills, MI
Paul and Joanne - Chatham, ON Canada
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Paul and Jody - Plainview, MN
Walter and Mary Anne - Dearborn, MI
Brian and Laura - Indianapolis, IN
Teresa - Madison Heights, MI
Kathleen - Canton, MI
Maureen - Ypsilanti, MI
Andrew and Terese - Royal Oak, MI
Brendan and Hannah - Saline, MI
Gregory and Elizabeth - Northville, MI
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John - Whitsett, NC
Jonathan and Artha - Clarkston, MI
Patrick and Eileen - Ypsilanti, MI
Michael - Whitmore Lake, MI
Stuart and Annette - Ypsilanti, MI
Catherine - Plano, TX
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Erin - Merrimack, NH
Patrick - Essexville, MI
Kevin and MaryBeth - Plymouth, MI
Theresa - Brooklyn, MI
Thomas and Mary Anne - Saint Ignace, MI
Christopher and Kristen - Dearborn, MI
Chris and Elaine - Livonia, MI
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Maureen - The Villages, FL
Rachael - Ann Arbor, MI
Margaret - Commerce Township, MI
Maria - Wyandotte, MI
Michael & Juanita - Ojai, CA
Marouki and Awatif - West Bloomfield, MI
Thomas and Mary - Berkley, MI
Michael - Livonia, MI
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Patricia - Sunrise, FL
Minoo and Jeanette - Farmington Hills, MI
Ralph and Elizabeth - Coal Valley, IL
Genevieve - Lapeer, MI
Matthew - Ann Arbor, MI
Billy - New Rochelle, NY
Paul and Lucy - Ypsilanti, MI
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Kevin - Clarkston, MI
Karen - Plymouth, MI
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Thomas and Sarah - Ann Arbor, MI
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Jeff - Saginaw, MI
Paul - Livonia, MI
Katherine - Ypsilanti, MI
Edward - Dearborn Heights, MI
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Cecilia - Grand Prairie, TX
Shirley - Fenton, MI
Peggy - South Lyon, MI
Carol - Ypsilanti, MI
Trevor and Brittany - Dexter, MI
James and Sandra - Redford, MI
Michael and Laura - Plymouth, MI
Betty - Concord, MI
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Jeffrey - Reno, NV
Samuel and Lisa - Waterford, MI
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Jason and Mary - Northville, MI
Stanley and Donna - Wyandotte, MI
Maureen - Grand Ledge, MI
Zephyr - Nampa, ID
Marilyn - Baton Rouge, LA
Alan and Rosetta - Chesaning, MI
Melanie - Humboldt, SK
Michael - Ocean Springs, MS
William - Shelby Township, MI
David - Plymouth, MI
James and Dorothy - Ypsilanti, MI
Esther - Manlius, NY
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Andrew - Grapevine, TX
Prudence - Troy, MI
Terese - Corpus Christi, TX
Daniel - Ann Arbor, MI
Maryanne - Acworth, GA
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Benjamin and Erin - Sterling Heights, MI
Elizabeth - Lincoln, NE
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Craig and Tanya - Lansing, MI
Duane and Judith - Grand Blanc, MI
Vincent and Ellen - Brighton, MI
John and Patricia - Livonia, MI
Tom and Patricia - Plymouth, MI
Charles and Anna - Allen Park, MI
Susan - Clio, MI
Paul and Karen - White Lake, MI
Chris and Esther - Schertz, TX
Russell and Catherine - West Branch, MI
Michael - Maumee, OH
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John - Sainte Genevieve, MO
Gregory - Ann Arbor, MI
Elizabeth - Willis, MI
Joseph - Billings, MT
Carol - Woburn, MA
Susan - Milford, MI
Lael - Scottsdale, AZ
Frank and Flavia - El Paso, TX
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Jane - Novi, MI
Donna - Commerce Township, MI
Lee and Deborah - Garden City, MI
Jerry and Rachel - Deer Park, TX
Mary Lee - Ann Arbor, MI
Phil and Patricia - Northville, MI
James - Windsor, ON Canada
John and Sara - Silver Spring, MD
James and Mary - Royal Oak, MI
Chris and Lynda - Trenton, MI
Steven - Plymouth, MI
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Michael - Pittsford, NY
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Don - Walton, KY
Susan - Pinckney, MI
Constance - San Francisco, CA
John and Laura - Oxford, MI
Gary and Carol - Sunset, LA
Mary - Woodstock, GA
Annette - Novi, MI
Harry and Rita - Milford, MI
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Mark and Mary - Farmington Hills, MI
Mark and Jane - Kawkawlin, MI
Joseph and Mary - Grand Ledge, MI
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John and Lisa - Ypsilanti, MI
William and Mary - Ann Arbor, MI
Kenneth - Redford, MI
Cheryl - Lapeer, MI
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Kathleen - Glasgow, KY
Randy and Laura - Livonia, MI
Emilia - Canton, MI
Lindall - Falmouth, MI
Mary - Fall City, WA
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Elizabeth - Whitmore Lake, MI
Bryan - Jacksonville, FL
Theresa - Bradenton, FL
Madeline - Fenton, MI
Roberta - Farmington, NM
Jeremy and Bonnie - Berkley, MI
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Peter and Mary - Livonia, MI
Anthony and Marie - Sand Coulee, MT
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Charles and Delia - South Lyon, MI
David - Alexandria, VA
Emily - Clarkston, MI
Daniel - Troy, MI
Daniel - Flint, MI
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Albert and Sally - Ann Arbor, MI
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John - Indialantic, FL
Richard and Joan - Livonia, MI
Mark and Nancy - Northville, MI
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Catherine - Milford, MI
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Thomas and Sylvina - Spokane, WA
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Jacqueline - Belleville, MI
Robert and Cynthia - Saline, MI
Margaret - Lathrup Village, MI
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Roger and Kathleen - Chelsea, MI
Stephen - Pleasant Ridge, MI
Sophie - Westland, MI
David - Paulding, OH
Thomas and Leslie - Pontiac, MI
Dalia - Fort Myers, FL
William and Emily - Westland, MI
Deborah - Burke, VA
Jane - Brooklyn, MI
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Lena - Livonia, MI
Paul - Taylor, MI
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Thomas and Nancy - Brighton, MI
Matthew and Vikki - Rosemead, CA
Julia - Farmington Hills, MI
Steven - Ann Arbor, MI
Thomas and Maria - Canton, MI
Helen - Dexter, MI
Pauline - Pahrump, NV
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Richard and Margaret - Livonia, MI
Steven - Hampton, VA
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Joseph and Karen - Sacramento, CA
James and Mary - Marina Del Rey, CA
John and Marcia - Dearborn, MI
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Thank You … Ave Maria Radio
John and Judith - Dearborn Heights, MI
Jane - Niles, MI
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Lawrence and Stacey - Clarkston, MI
Judith - Milford, MI
Lisa - Plymouth, MI
Kathleen - Ann Arbor, MI
Brian and Kelly - Canton, MI
Jared and Sarah - Rathdrum, ID
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Shawn - Monroe, MI
Maria - Imlay City, MI
Bernice - Berlin, MI
Mike and Rebecca - Ann Arbor, MI
Stephen and Sandra - Clinton Township, MI
Lennie - New Hudson, MI
Perry and Mary - Commerce Twp, MI
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John - Waterford, MI
Mark and Marilyn - Grosse Ile, MI
Thomas and Patricia - Brighton, MI
Jaime - APO, AE
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Lyle and Cynthia - Livonia, MI
Robert and Laura - Underwood, IA
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Marlene - Dearborn, MI
Joseph - Fredericksburg, TX
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John and Sharon - Troy, MI
Traci - Dearborn, MI
John and Mary Lou - Gregory, MI
Gerald and Maria - Pasco, WA
Ann - West Bloomfield, MI
Kimberly - Westland, MI
Colleen - San Antonio, TX
Ismael - Marietta, GA
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Rita - Farmington Hills, MI
Mary - Rochester Hills, MI
Jeffrey - Brighton, MI
Stashia - Howell, MI
Constance - Gainesville, GA
Inyoung - Yorba Linda, CA
Jane - Rochester Hills, MI
Ceilia - Fenton, MI
Linda - Dearborn, MI
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Martin - Canton, MI
David - Ypsilanti, MI
Linda - Grand Blanc, MI
Dave and Mary - Saint Louis, MO
Erik - Silverdale, WA
Thomas - Dearborn, MI
Melody - Tulsa, OK
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Thomas - Ypsilanti, MI
Leonard and Rosemary - Saline, MI
Jeff and Vickie - Big Piney, WY
Mukasa and Cleo - Canton, MI
Katreena - Livonia, MI
Charles - Farmington Hills, MI
Beth Ann - Canton, MI
Patricia - Ann Arbor, MI
David and Rosie - Rio Rico, AZ
Janet - Dracut, MA
Kenneth and Laura - Canton, MI
Michael and Rosemary - Ann Arbor, MI
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Mary Ellen - Ypsilanti, MI
David and Emiliana - Bismarck, ND
Ruthie - Marshallville, OH
David and Carol - South Lyon, MI
Therese - Westland, MI
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Vincent and Theresa - Canton, MI
Margaret - Troy, MI
John Scott and Cheryl - Fox Island, WA
Jeanine - Plymouth, MI
Michael and Donna - Ann Arbor, MI
Michael and Cindi - Fort Worth, TX
James - Lapeer, MI
Victor - Pine Grove, PA
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Bernice - Morrow, OH
Ron and Lisa - Dexter, MI
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Jonathan and Cristin - Northville, MI
Robert and Susan - White Lake, MI
Andrew and Gwen - Plymouth, MI
D. and Rosalind - Ann Arbor, MI
Eric and Christina - Washington Township, MI
Thomas and Pamela - Plymouth, MI
Vincent and Kathleen - Hebron, KY
Patricia - Fort Worth, TX
George - Livonia, MI
Amy - Milford, MI
Nicole - Allen Park, MI
Carol - Ypsilanti, MI
Rosario - Sterling Heights, MI
Aaron and Michele - Ypsilanti, MI
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Mary - Livonia, MI
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Mary - Tecumseh, MI
Michael and Pamela - Canton, MI
Joseph and Tina - South Lyon, MI
Jacqueline - Howell, MI
Timothy - Ann Arbor, MI
David and Jane - Fraser, MI
Justin and Christina - Pinckney, MI
Robert and Christine - Ypsilanti, MI
Karen - Utica, MI
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Christine - Oakland, MI
Gregory - Berkley, MI
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Daniel - Duxbury, MA
Colin - Clarkston, MI
Mary - Sterling Heights, MI
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Jay and Mary - Richmond, TX
Constance - Fort Myers, FL
Leota - Yakima, WA
Rossy - Bronx, NY
Frank and Sandra - Dearborn, MI
Teresa - Rowlett, TX
Jose and Jessica - Grapevine, TX
Jeanne - Canton, MI
James and Frances - Plymouth, MI
Robert - Orland Park, IL
Robert and Merrell - Palestine, TX
Michael and Emma - Oxford, MI
Mazin - West Bloomfield, MI
Mitzi - Mechanicsville, MD
Brenda - Odessa, TX
Kyle - Ypsilanti, MI
Joseph - Saginaw, MI
Roberto - Katy, TX
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Angelique - Inkster, MI
Kevin - Charlotte, NC
Judith - Swartz Creek, MI
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Janet - Plymouth, MI
Gerard and Christine - Commerce Twp, MI
Dawn - Plymouth, MI
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James and Bridget - Ypsilanti, MI
Angela - Canton, MI
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Thomas and Dianne - Canton, MI
Larry and Branwen - Saline, MI
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Lynn - Hazel Park, MI
Andrew - Monroe, MI
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Timothy and Mary - Midland, MI
William - Irvine, CA
Ramon and Martha - Parma, MI
Jose - North Fort Myers, FL
Robert and Linda - Fenton, MI
Amy - Edmond, OK
Dalia - Canton, MI
Ann - Cape Coral, FL
David and Margie - Milan, MI
Christy - Charlotte, NC
Cameron and Teresa - Fallbrook, CA
Georgianna - Clarkston, MI
Erin - Whitmore Lake, MI
James and Mary Beth - Bonita Springs, FL
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Steven and Julie - Royal Oak, MI
Suzanne - Waterford, CT
Gerard and Anne - Naples, FL
Sharon - La Porte City, IA
Scott and Gayle - Cedar, MI
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Virginia - Eagle River, AK
Marjorie - Bay City, MI
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Guy and Trish - Clarkston, MI
Lonnie - Sioux Falls, SD
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Joseph and Becky - Plymouth, MI
Daniel and Carol - Ann Arbor, MI
Joyce - Orange, TX
Lillian - Cooper City, FL
Christopher - Summerfield, FL
Pamela - Dryden, MI
Matthew and Rebekah - Plymouth, MI
Sam / Strategic Partners - Canton, MI
Therese - Ann Arbor, MI
John and Carol - Novi, MI
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Robert and Marie - Riverview, MI
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Roy - Belleville, MI
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Michael and Beth - Ann Arbor, MI
Diane - Grand Blanc, MI
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Michael - Fairfax, VA
P.J. and Jenny - Fowlerville, MI
Peter - Hollywood, FL
Linda - Bay City, MI
Daren and T. - Pinckney, MI
Cheryl - St Thomas, ON Canada
Brian - Milan, MI
Juan - Oxnard, CA
Richard - Russell, KS
James and Eva - Clarkston, MI
Donald and Kristen - Twin Lakes, WI
John - Whitsett, NC
Jeanette - Milford, MI
Heidi - Westland, MI
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Dina - West Bloomfield, MI
Mary - Farmington Hills, MI
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Linda - Columbus, OH
Renee - Dearborn Heights, MI
Josie - Fenton, MO
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Kyle - Cleveland, OH
Adam and Maria - Waterford, NY
Mladen - Windsor, ON Canada
Adam - Ann Arbor, MI
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Robert and Frances - Milford, MI
Michael and Cheryl - Howell, MI
Christopher - Hilliard, OH
Colleen - Plymouth, MI
John and Karen - Metamora, MI
Michael - Plymouth, MI
Ricardo - Carmel, IN
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John and Nancy - Ypsilanti, MI
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Cathy - Ludington, MI
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Rita - Acworth, GA
James and Doris - Saginaw, MI
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Dave - Wixom, MI
Mara - Plymouth, MI
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Paul - Shepherdstown, WV
Mary - Mill Valley, CA
Linda - Cincinnati, OH
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Catherine - Brighton, MI
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Maureen - Waterford, MI
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Samuel and Susanne - Livonia, MI
James and Bridget - Saline, MI
MaryEllen - Plymouth, MI
Fred and Beverly - Waterford, MI
David - Ypsilanti, MI
Marc - Saginaw, MI
Mildred - Spring Mills, PA
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Brett and Andrea - Lorton, VA
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Joseph and Susannah - Simpsonville, SC
Donald and Lynette - Missouri City, TX
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Cynthia - Warren, MI
Mark - Farmington Hills, MI
Judith - Troy, MI
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Mary - Ann Arbor, MI
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Thomas and Susan - Chelsea, MI
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Patricia - Thornton, CO
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Susanne - Ave Maria, FL
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This piece by Fr. Miscamble is, first of all, a piece of historical analysis not a piece of abstract moral philosophy. I will remind us, however, of the difference between the objective morality of an act and the subjective culpability of the moral agent.

When I interviewed Fr. Miscamble last year he explained how he backed into this discussion as a historian not as an ethicist. He knew the consensus of the popes, the bishops and most Catholic moral theologians. For this reason, he wasn’t championing an ethical conclusion. In his task as a professional historian, as well as in his vocation as a priest, Fr. Miscamble thought a better grasp of the historical circumstances was important. Today we have the luxury of knowing outcomes that were unavailable to Truman but were not wholly irrelevant to his decisiomaking. Do we properly grasp the historical situation given the reams of speculation over the last seventy years? Are we making ethical decisions in the absence of a proper understanding of the ethical situation? Fr. Miscamble mentions the conclusion of the “Atomic Diplomacy” school of thought: Truman was motivated to drop the bomb in order to teach the Soviet Union how they had better not mess with us or Europe after the war. I disagree with that reading of President Truman’s motivations. He may well have considered such consequences but it was hardly his motivation.

Consider the call to be a peacemaker in the midst of war. If you just stop fighting and surrender, will that lead to peace? If not, then what are your ethical choices?

Once war has begun, the participants have already decided that peace is impossible without decisive victory. The Japanese remained implacably opposed to peace even in the face of certain defeat. What do you do to bring about peace? Did Truman think of the atomic bomb as just a bigger conventional weapon? I am not at all sure that he grasped the human cost because he didn’t understand the severity of the bomb. Civilian deaths can be foreseen as a consequence of one’s actions without intending those deaths. Is the doctrine of double effect applicable? Both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, according to Fr. Miscamble’s analysis, were military-industrial targets.

The Church’s places great moral weight on the difference between combatants and noncombatants. This is a grave matter. This moral distinction is part of the world’s debt to the Catholic Church. Even principles of warfare have been changed by the Incarnation and Pentecost. A sacred boundary was drawn between combatants and noncombatants. In my reading of history, however, this begins changing, sadly, with the American Civil War. The sacred distinction becomes less clear and less appreciated in WWI and certainly by WWII is entirely lost. Even Churchill, who claims he is fighting for the protection of Christian civilization, admits that he was forced to adopt the barbaric standards of Hitler in carrying out the war.

He commanded the indiscriminate bombing of cities just like Hitler had bombed London. He wrote to his Minister of Aircraft Production, Lord Beaverbrook: “When I look round to see how we can win the war I see that there is only one sure path. We have no Continental army which can defeat the German military power. The blockade is broken and Hitler has Asia and probably Africa to draw from. Should he be repulsed here or not try invasion, he will recoil eastward, and we have nothing to stop him. But there is one thing that will bring him back and bring him down, and that is an absolutely devastating, exterminating attack by very heavy bombers from this country upon the Nazi homeland.”

Was Churchill required to fight the war on Hitler’s terms?  I would like to say no although God himself will be the ultimate judge. It is easy to pose as morally superior when we are above the historical fray.

Let me give one example of a morally significant circumstance that might change the definition of combatant. A close friend, who served in Vietnam, told me that children were sometimes employed as combatants by the Viet Cong. He lost a brother in arms who was handing chocolates out to a small gang of youngsters. One of the youngsters tossed an explosive device into the truck in which he was riding. Were children now legitimate targets for my friend? Had that child been deputized as a combatant? Does that change in circumstance, alter the moral decisionmaking?  Is modern war invariably total war? Is the entire citizenry deputized as combatants? The Japanese military leadership, Fr. Miscamble claimed in my interview, although not in this accompanying video, that Japanese leadership had turned the entire population of Japan into an army. What becomes of a combatant/noncombatant distinction in such a total war situation?

Truman’s actions had overwhelming public support. However, after the dropping of the bomb, many significant American voices regarded the bombing as “barbaric”, “lacking any military justification whatsoever”, “seriously undermines America’s international moral standing”.  Gar Alperovitz, in his The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, quotes General Eisenhower, Admiral Leahy, former president Herbert Hoover as hostile to the bomb’s use. Norman Cousins, in his Pathology to Power, claims that even General Douglas MacArthur, was not consulted, and would have rejected its use. I have not confirmed those references but take them at face value.

The Church teaches that just war principles are applied both in deciding to enter war and in the conduct of our behavior within war. These need to be applied in particular circumstances with sometimes surprising shifts in definition. In this situation, the two questions that I believe have moral significance and which may cloud the issue are:

  1. In total war, i.e., where national leadership essentially deputizes the entire civilian population, what becomes of the classic distinction between combatant and non-combatant? This was something of the defense put forth by William Calley after the My Lai massacre.
  2. What do you do when faced with an opponent whose intention is, for ideological or religious reasons, to never surrender because to do so would be a shameful dishonor, more grievous that death itself? How does one live as a peacemaker in that environment?

Remember that this fine video by Fr. Miscamble is not laying out the Church’s teaching on just war principles. He is functioning as a historian reviewing the historical circumstances surrounding the Truman decision and concluding that it was an awful decision- but the least awful available.

 

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